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This included raids such as those on the Renault factory in Boulogne-Billancourt in March 1942 or the port facilities of Nantes in September 1943 (which killed 1,500 civilians). [37] Most nations had refused to ratify such laws or agreements because of the vague or impractical wording in treaties such as the 1923 Hague Rules of Air Warfare. Bomb Group Missions Summaries. The radical changes it forces on a targeted population can backfire, including the counterproductive result of freeing non-essential labourers to fill worker shortages in war industries. A later raid, using napalm was carried out before it was freed from Nazi occupation in April. 3. Operation Tidal Wave was an air attack by bombers of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) based in Libya and Southern Italy on nine oil refineries around Ploiești, Romania on 1 August 1943, during World War II. [144] However, in 1939 the Bomber B program sought to produce a twin-engined strategic bomber that could carry nearly-equivalent bombloads of Allied four-engined heavy bombers, but as an advanced development of the pre-war Schnellbomber concept. The only other city in Italy to be subjected to area bombing was La Spezia, heavily bombed by the Bomber Command during April 1943, with slight casualties but massive damage (45% of the buildings were destroyed or heavily damaged,[174] and just 25–30% remained undamaged). [126] By the last week of August, over half the missions were flown under the cover of dark. Bombardier uses bomb ballistics tables to account for type of bomb. [147] The July 1944-initiated Jägernotprogramm, as well as the devastating effects of Allied bombing on the entire German aviation industry, prevented any production of the He 177B design. In 1940, RAF Bomber Command launched attacks against German preparations for Operation Sealion, the proposed invasion of England, attacking Channel Ports in France and Belgium and sinking large numbers of barges that had been collected by the Germans for use in the invasion. After a second ultimatum had been issued by the Germans, it appeared their effort had failed and on 14 May 1940, Luftwaffe bombers were ordered to bomb Rotterdam in an effort to force the capitulation of the besieged city. British historian Frederick Taylor asserts that "all sides bombed each other's cities during the war. During World War II, Allied bombing raids left their devastating mark on Germany, killing more than 400,000 civilians and laying waste to entire cities, from Berlin to Hamburg to Dresden. That seems awfully high for a pilot, which is what they say he was. From one side it should make easier the note of probe, from second side it should confirm the efficiency of used bombs. About 3,000 crafts took part in the operation and a total of 9,000 tons of bombs were used. [69][73] (Overall, incendiaries made up only three percent of the total tonnage dropped. This section of the 392nd's history provides details on each of the 285 combat missions and 6 diversions flown by Group personnel. Though it was never explicitly declared, this was the nearest that the British got to a declaration of unrestricted aerial bombing – Directive 22 said "You are accordingly authorised to use your forces without restriction", and then listing a series of primary targets which included Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, and Cologne. As a result of the attack, 47 people were killed and 127 were wounded. In part because of their heavier armament and armor, they carried smaller bomb loads than British bombers. [141] Target marking and most bombs missed the city centre. Operation Chastise, better known as the Dambusters raid, was an attempt to damage German industrial production by crippling its hydro-electric power and transport in the Ruhr area. Also, both the U.S. Government and its Army Air Forces commanders were reluctant to bomb enemy cities and towns indiscriminately. It has been argued that the bombing was against well-defined targets, albeit in the middle of the city, and would have assisted the advancing German Army. The survey estimated that at a minimum 305,000 were killed in German cities due to bombing and estimated a minimum of 780,000 wounded. One of the many unforgettable scenes British citizens will never forget from the WWII is the London Blitz – from the German word “blitzkrieg” or “lightning war”. Is insufficient information to ascertain how much additional potential industrial growth the bombing of German cities to... 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