7 Useful Links Vinyl Chloride is used to make PVC, pipes, electrical wires, plastic boxes, packing materials, cling-wrap for food, upholstery for vehicles and furniture, carpet backing, flooring, tiles, bottles, vinyl records, credit cards, medical devices, cigarettes, and much more. PVC is produced by polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). PVC  was first used as cable insulation as a replacement for rubber during the Second World War and continues to be used widely to this day due to its flexibility, ease of handling in installation and inherent flame retardation. 10.19, is usually a copolymer of vinylidene chloride with vinyl chloride or other monomers. Vinyl chloride, also called chloroethylene, a colourless, flammable, toxic gas belonging to the family of organohalogen compounds and used principally in making polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, a widely used plastic with numerous applications. Optional additives include processing aids, impact modifiers, fillers, nitrile rubbers, pigments and colorants and Flame Retardants. Further information on PVC-U windows can be found via our Windows Group homepage, www.bpfwindowsgroup.co.uk. Picture: Kind permission of ECVM. More information on the role of PVC in sport can be found at www.pvcinsport.co.uk, PVC is widely used in coated fabrics applications, this includes use in emergency shelters to help people at times of disaster. It can be found in applications, such as construction materials, parts used in the automotive industry, insulation for wiring and cables, industrial equipment, household goods, medical supplies, paper manufacturing, PVC piping, rubber processes and glass manufacturing. This includes use in seating, roofings, floorings as well as piping and electrical wiring. The choice of heat stabiliser depends on a number of factors including the technical requirements of the PVC product, regulatory approval requirements and cost. In other words, this substance has been directly linked to the development of cancer. The electrolysis of salt water produces chlorine, which is combined with ethylene (obtained from oil) to form vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Independent research by Mavel Consultants has shown that the typical cost of using alternative materials is in a range 20-100% higher per component. Other sporting applications: performance sports surfaces, sports equipment, clothing, protective barriers, matting, wiring and piping infrastructure. Uses of Vinyl Chloride Until the mid-seventies, vinyl chloride was used in a variety of consumer products, including cosmetics, as a propellant in aerosol cans, and as a coolant. Optional additives, include a range of substances from processing aids, impact modifiers, thermal modifiers, UV stabilisers, flame retardants, mineral fillers, pigments, to biocides, and blowing agents for specific applications. The Building Research Establishment (BRE), the UK's leading authority on sustainable construction, has granted PVC-U windows a life-span of more than 35 years however, there are many examples of products lasting much longer than this. RecoMed is a PVC take-back scheme currently being implemented at 7 different NHS hospitals across Britain (as of March 2016). The nature of the material means that blood can be stored safely for longer. Picture: Courtesy of Akcros Chemicals. A Total Cost of Ownership study takes into account all costs associated with a product over its entire life cycle. NIOSH REL Ca See Appendix A OSHA PEL [1910.1017] TWA … 1.2 Bi-Products It is produced by breaking down other gasses and chemicals, which creates a colorless gas (at room temperature) with a sweet-smelling, mild odor. The functional additives used in all PVC materials include heat stabilisers, lubricants, and in the case of flexible PVC, plasticisers. Until the middle of the 1970s, manufacturers used vinyl chloride in a variety of products ranging from cosmetics to aerosol cans, but you may recognize one current product that contains this substance: polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In 2011, the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers (ECVM) commissioned an independent company to undertake a study on the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of PVC products. Vinyl chloride, a colourless, flammable, toxic gas belonging to the family of organohalogen compounds and used principally in making polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, a widely used plastic with numerous applications. Cape Town World Cup 2010 Stadium. 2. PVC was often used to make vinyl car tops. 18 As shown in Figure 7-6 , vinyl chloride is a relatively simple compound. Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that, at high levels, has a mild, sweet odor.        3.12 Lucricants It is a naturally white and very brittle (prior to the additions of plasticizers) plastic. 1. These include: DINP, DIDP, DPHP, DIUP and DTDP.    5.1 Construction DOT ID & Guide. Vinyl chloride is a colorless organic gas with a sweet odor. Modern production technologies. Our attorneys are here to help you seek justice and compensation if you were wrongfully injured. Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. First, the raw material VCM is pressurized and liquefied, and then fed into the polymerization reactor, which contains water and suspending agents in advance. Eco-profiles of PVC were updated in 2006 and can be downloaded from the PlasticsEurope Eco-profiles webpages. Polyvinyl Chloride or "PVC" is a widely used thermoplastic. Those most at risk of vinyl chloride exposure are workers and residents who live near factories that use vinyl chloride in their production lines. The main polymerization methods include suspension, emulsion, and bulk (mass) methods. There are two methods to produce VCM: direct chlorination and oxychlorination. Other construction applications: door profiles, pipes and fittings, power, data and telecoms wiring and cables, cable and services ducting, internal and external cladding, conservatories and atria, roofing and ceiling systems and membranes, rainwater, flooring and wallcoverings. KU9625000. Vinyl chloride can enter the air, soil and groundwater following improper disposal of chemical wastes. Typical examples of PVC healthcare products include: Flexible PVC is used to make blood storage bags, and in fact is the only material approved by the European Pharmacopoeia for this purpose. In addition, phthalates are used in other non-PVC applications such as paints, rubber products, adhesives and some cosmetics. It is a naturally white and very brittle (prior to the additions of plasticizers) plastic. Typical examples of PVC automotive components include: PVC brings both high performance qualities and important cost benefits to the automotive industry. When treated with certain catalysts, vinyl chloride monomers undergo polymerization and form the larger compound known as polyvinyl chloride, or PVC. Vinyl chloride is a highly dangerous chemical used to make numerous plastic materials.        3.13 Plasticisers 3 PVC and Additives 3.13 Plasticisers. Vinyl chloride is the starting material for the production of polyvinyl chloride, used in the fabrication of products such as PVC pipe. Contents External lubricants can reduce friction between the PVC and the processing equipment, whereas internal lubricants work on the PVC granules. Breathing in, touching, or ingesting any amount of vinyl chloride can be extremely dangerous, which is why anyone who works or lives around this chemical must take immediate action to protect themselves and preserve their health. Exposure Limits. The United States currently remains the largest VCM manufacturing region because of its low-production-co… The report, published June 2004, showed PVC products to be comparable to alternatives in their environmental impact. It is most commonly used in the formation of other substances, especially polyvinyl chloride, which is used to create all types of plastics, from children’s toys to home materials. This colorless compound is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce the polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The Recofloor scheme, managed by Axion Consulting Ltd, provides a mechanism for waste vinyl flooring to be collected and recycled. About 13 billion kilograms are produced annually. Vinyl chloride (C 2 H 3 Cl ) is the monomer link in the polyvinyl chloride chain. Vinyl chloride definition, a colorless, easily liquefied, flammable, slightly water-soluble gas, C2H3Cl, having a pleasant, etherlike odor: used in the manufacture of plastics, as a refrigerant, and in the synthesis of polyvinyl chloride and other organic compounds. Volksparkstadion roof, Hamburg. Our firm is known for not backing down from a challenge. This is Picture: Fotalia. Following the conclusion of the Vinyl2010 ten year programme, new targets for sustainable development were launched as part of the successor VinylPlus programme. PVC has excellent electrical insulation properties, making it ideal for cabling applications.        3.11 Heat Stablisers In creating VinylPlus, the industry has chosen to work in an open process of extensive stakeholder dialogue, including private companies, NGOs, regulators, politicians and users of PVC. Gottlieb Daimler Stadion roof, Stuttgart. With high clarity and excellent organoleptic properties (no transfer of taint to food) it is equally suited for use in short term applications such as specialised packaging. The structure and composition of PVC lends itself to being mechanically recycled, with reasonable ease, to produce good quality recycling material. PVC is found in various plastic products, including wire insulation and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is a colorless organic gas with a sweet odor.     3.2 Optional Additives    3.1 Functional Additives IDLH. It's used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, wire coatings, vehicle upholstery, and plastic kitchen ware. In addition heat stabilisers have an important influence on the physical properties of the PVC and the cost of the formulation. Until the mid-seventies, vinyl chloride was used in a variety of consumer products, including cosmetics, as a propellant in aerosol cans, and as a coolant. Speciality plasticisers, such as adipates, citrates, benzoates and trimeliltates are used where special physical properties are required such as the ability to withstand very low temperatures or where increased flexibility is important. EDC is then thermally cracked to yield VCM at a few hundred degrees Celsius. Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C=CHCl that is also called vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) or chloroethene. PVC's strong, lightweight, durable and versatile characteristics make it ideal for window profiles. This process is called compounding. Picture: Kind permission of Bruce Sutherland, City of Capetown/PVCplus. why we provide counsel that is customized to fit the unique needs and PVC-U windows, in a domestic setting, score an "A" rating and in the commercial arena, an "A+" rating - the best there is! Eco-profiles provide environmental analysis for a product from 'cradle-to-gate' (as opposed to the 'cradle-to-grave' approach of Life Cycle Assessment). Vinyl chloride is a material that is used extensively in the manufacturing and processing of a wide variety of products. Chloroethene, Chloroethylene, Ethylene monochloride, Monochloroethene, Monochloroethylene, VC, VCM, Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) CAS No. These additives can influence or determine a number of the products properties, namely; its mechanical properties, weather fastness, its colour and clarity and indeed whether it is to be used in a flexible application. inquire about your free consultation.    1.2  Bi-Products If someone is exposed to vinyl chloride gas, moving to an area with fresh air is usually an adequate remedy, but only if the instance is singular or rare. The environmental impacts of any one material cannot be judged in isolation since the use of alternatives will not be without cost, either financially or to the environment. These include, DEHP, DBP, DIBP and BBP. PVC cables do not harden and crack over time and find use in many applications from telecommunications to electric blankets. The report can be downloaded from the Europa website. 1 ppm = 2.56 mg/m 3.    5.2 Healthcare 5 Applications The scheme involves the collection of used PVC medical devices including IV solution bags; nasal cannulas; oxygen tubes; anaesthetic masks and oxygen masks. Vinyl chloride also burns easily and is not stable at high temperatures. To protect your interests, make sure you know what vinyl chloride is and how it could be dangerous to you. Many of the PVC products we use everyday but tend to take for granted contain phthalate plasticisers. From wire insulation to Comic-Con statues, this product is found virtually everywhere. PVC is derived from salt and It is used in the manufacture of numerous products in building and construction, automotive industry, electrical wire insulation and cables, piping, industrial and household equipment, medical supplies, and is depended upon heavily by the rubber, paper, and glass industries. High Phthalates: High molecular weight (HMW) phthalates are those with 7 - 13 carbon atoms in their chemical backbone. Prolonged exposure will almost certainly cause the individual to pass out, and exposure to high levels of the gas can be fatal. The essential raw materials for PVC are derived from salt and oil. Inside the house, PVC is used to make linoleum for the floor. A plasticiser is a substance which when added to a material, usually a plastic, makes it flexible, resilient and easier to handle. 18 As shown in Figure 7-6 , vinyl chloride is a relatively simple compound. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Picture: Tarkett   |    2 All weather sailing protection    |    3 Inflatable climbing wall. PVC stands for polyvinyl chloride, which is a kind of synthetic resin. tough cases nationwide, and have earned a reputation for taking on and 6  PVC and Sustainability 75-01-4 RTECS No. PVC is used in the manufacture of numerous products, including packaging films and water pipes. Vinyl Chloride CAS#: 75-01-4 Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine July 2006 This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride. It is used in several products in day to day use such as pipes, cable insulation, roofing sheets, packaging foils, floor coverings, bottles, medical products, and so forth. (877) 958-7920 or fill out the form to This investment has meant that not just prodcution off-cuts are recycled but also products such as doors and PVC-U windows are recycled on a huge global scale. Materials that compete with PVC are often promoted as a more natural choice, indeed, ‘natural’ does not equate to ‘better’ or ‘more sustainable'. Higher than normal levels of vinyl chloride may be present inside new … we work with, we have big firm resources that allow us to get the results About 80% of production involves suspension polymerization. 1,2-Dichloroethane is also used generally as an intermediate for other organic chemical compounds, and as a solvent. Vinyl chloride has been used in the past as a refrigerant. PVC's contribution is by no means limited to its products. What is Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), and What is it Used For?. For further information, please visit, www.recofloor.org/. Source: Software GaBi 4 Database - PE Europe. Molecules of VCM are polymerised to form PVC resin, to which appropriate additives are incorporated to make a customised PVC compound . Vinyl chloride: health effects, incident management and toxicology Information on vinyl chloride (VC) (also known as chloroethylene), for use in responding to chemical incidents. PVC packaging is also widely used in the packaging of pharmaceutical products. These are used to reduce friction during processing. Your browser is out of date. As with most recycling streams, sorting is of the utmost importance to achieve optimal recycling of PVC materials. Vinyl chloride is a manufactured substance, used mostly to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic products. The recycled flooring can be used in the manufacture of new flooring or to produce traffic management products such as traffic cones and road sign bases.    1.1  Raw Materials Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic polymers in the world (next to only a few more widely used plastics like PET and PP). Dow Plastics vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride, Saran™, is usually supplied as a white, free flowing powder. More can be read about these substances either via Plastipedia or an excellent publication available from the BPF Bookshop, entitled “PVC: Reaching for sustainability” by Dr. Mark Everard. Typical example of PVC construction products include: Unplasticised PVC is one of the stiffest polymers at normal ambient temperature and shows little deterioration after many years in service. These optional additives are not strictly necessary for the integrity of the plastic but are used to draw-upon other properties. The mutagenicity of this liver carcinogen is dependent on metabolic activation by CYP450, and detoxification is mediated by mEH. Low Phthalates: Low molecular weight (LMW) phthalates contain eight or less carbon atoms in their chemical backbone. Any small section of the polymer looks like this: Notice that the links between carbon atoms has changed from double-links in the monomer to single-links in the polymer. Vinyl chloride: 75-01-4: 1 pound: 313: U043: 10000 pounds "X" indicates that this is a second name for an EPCRA section 313 chemical already included on this consolidated list. May also indicate that the same chemical with the same CAS number appears on another list with a different chemical name. The list of products made from PVC is exhaustive, ranging from phonograph records to drainage and potable piping, water … Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is one of the most widely used polymers in the world. PVC has been used for hundreds of life-saving and healthcare products for almost 50 years being used in surgery, pharmaceuticals, drug delivery and medical packaging due to its unrivalled performance characteristics and cost-efficiency. 3.11 Heat stabilisers  Vinyl chloride is a colorless, flammable gas that evaporates very quickly. With around 1500 hospitals in the UK, estimates put the total tonnage of PVC waste at over 2,000 tonnes per annum. Due to its versatile nature, PVC is used extensively across a broad range of  industrial, technical and everyday applications including widespread use in building, transport, packaging, electrical/electronic and healthcare applications. Some examples of sporting venues using PVC for their roopfing membranes are shown below. While we are a boutique firm that provides attentive counsel to every client PVDC has … Although the industries that use this chemical have known about the harmful effects of vinyl chloride for decades, it has only recently been identified as a known carcinogen. PVC is most commonly used in plumbing and drainage applications, although it's also sold in the form of pellets or as resin in its powder form. The mutagenicity of this liver carcinogen is dependent on metabolic activation by CYP450, and detoxification is mediated by mEH. Products and bi-products of PVC manufacture include Chlorine and Caustic Soda, two of perhaps the most important manufacturing "ingredients" not only for PVC manufacture, but many other applications. If you or someone you love was diagnosed with brain, liver, or lung cancer, reproductive problems, or other serious health problem after exposure to vinyl chloride, you may have a personal injury case. PVC is useful because it resists two things that hate each other: fire and water. 1 Production steel, concrete and sealants) which need to be removed before re-processing. Vinyl chloride may be represented by the structural formula: Atom Legend C = Carbon H = Hydrogen Cl = Chlorine . It is also used in making bottles, non-food packaging, food-covering sheets, and cards (such as bank or membership cards). PVC takes less non-renewable fossil fuel to make than any other commodity plastic because unlike other thermoplastics which are entirely derived from oil, PVC is manufactured from two starting materials; 57% of the molecular weight derived from common salt, 43% derived from hyrdocarbon feedstocks (increasingly ethylene from sugar crops is also being used for PVC production as an alternative to ethylene from oil or natural gas), There are over 50 quadrillion tonnes of salt exist dissolved in the sea, with over 200billion tonnes of salt available underground - reserves of this material are clearly abundant, Ethylene from oil equates to 0.3% of annual oil usage, but increasingly etheylene from sugar crops is also being used for PVC production. Rigid PVC, also known as PVC-U (The U stands for "unplasticised") is used extensively in building applications such as window frames. Our aggressive representation and ability to fight makes us a force to For more information, please visit www.vinylplus.eu. PVC is versitile and can be used for different colours and effects, often being used as an alternative to traditional wood frames as they offer tremendous energy-saving potential at low cost. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, an organization under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, vinyl chloride is extremely toxic if inhaled, and it can cause major injuries if exposed to the skin directly. The first patent for a polymerisation process to manufacture PVC was granted to German inventor Friedrich Klatte in 1913 and PVC has been in commercial production since 1933. A shorter version, the ToxFAQs™, is also available.       6.23 Examples of Some Current Recycling Schemes for PVC The rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe and in profile applications such as doors and windows. PVC brings both high-performance qualities and important cost benefits to the automotive industry. The most common use of 1,2-dichloroethane is in the production of vinyl chloride, which is used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automobile parts. Vinyl chloride is the starting material for the production of polyvinyl chloride, used in the fabrication of products such as PVC pipe. Unlike some other known carcinogens, vinyl chloride is a manmade substance. Men exposed to vinyl chloride over a prolonged period of time reported lower sex drives and sometimes experienced damage to both the sperm and testes. Vinyl chloride is an intermediate in the production of PVC plastic used in a wide range of products including pipes, wire and cable coatings, packaging materials, upholstery for automobiles and furniture, wall and floor coverings, flooring, backing for carpet, house … Due to its versatile nature, PVC is used extensively across a broad range of industrial, technical and everyday applications including widespread use in building, transport, packaging, electrical/electronic and healthcare applications. We have handled © Copyright British Plastics Federation 2021. ; window frames, drainage pipe, water service pipe, medical devices, blood storage bags, cable and wire insulation, resilient flooring, roofing membranes, stationary, automotive interiors and seat coverings, fashion and footwear, packaging, cling film, credit cards, vinyl records, synthetic leather and other coated fabrics. Due to its properties it reprocesses well and can be recycled into second (or third life) applications with ease. The "vinyl" siding used on houses is made of poly(vinyl chloride). If vinyl chloride comes in contact with the skin, it can cause redness, blisters, and numbness. Since the 90's , the European PVC Industry has been working hard to embrace its responsibility to the challenge of sustainable development. PVC is a versatile material that offers many possible applications, these include; window frames, drainage pipe, water service pipe, medical devices, blood storage bags, cable and wire insulation, resilient flooring, roofing membranes, stationary, automotive interiors and seat coverings, fashion and footwear, packaging, cling film, credit cards, vinyl records, synthetic leather and other coated fabrics. Sources and Potential Exposure [of Vinyl Chloride] Ambient air concentrations of vinyl chloride are generally quite low, with exposure occurring from the discharge of exhaust gases from factories that manufacture or process vinyl chloride, or evaporation from areas where chemical wastes are stored. It's durable, long-lasting, and finds use in a wide range of applications such as construction, packaging, electrical wiring, and medicine. 3.12 Lubricants 1086 116P(inhibited) Formula.    2.1 Resistance to Chemicals Today, vinyl chloride is most commonly used to make a polymer called polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Vinyl chloride is a manufactured substance, used mostly to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic products. In addition to use in stadiums and sporting venues, PVC is used extensively by athletes from the clothes and shoes they wear to the equipment they use and the surfaces they compete on. 4 Benefits of PVC There are many definitions of Sustainability and Sustainable Development, but it can best be defined by the three main pillars of sustainability; social, economic and environmental. The most commonly used plasticisers are phthalates which can be divided into two distinct groups with very different applications and classifications; How can I be exposed to vinyl chloride? What Is Vinyl Chloride Used For? 4. Some competing materials claim environmental and sustainability advantages over PVC – this is usually based either on myths about the environmental impact of PVC or unjustifiably biased opinions about the competing materials. It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. 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