In a dynamic context, this balance cannot be rigidly or permanently fixed. Similarly, the officers of the Railway Service and of the Central Legal Service, are deputed to the ministries of railways and law and justice respectively. Appointments to the Central Administrative Tribunals, State Administrative Tribunals and other important constitutional authorities are generally made by the PM. In large areas of India the Maoists and terrorists are quite active and they have posed danger to the peaceful life of civilians. The President or the ministers themselves do not make rules, these are in fact, framed by the cabinet secretariat, of course under the guidance of the ministers. Since there are expert civil servants in the cabinet secretariat the ministries or different departments generally cannot neglect the suggestions. Plagiarism Prevention 4. Other departments tend to look less and less to the states and increasingly to fill appointments from those already in the secretariat or in other central appointments. In all these matters the cabinet secretariat plays very important role. Moreover, the ability of a civil servant is ascertained from his annual performance appraisal and the standardisation has been unworkable because of differing norms of evaluation that prevail in the states and in the services. Since India is a federal state there are two main sets of government —one at the centre and the other at the states. The commission remarked that efficient secretariat service, depends upon a constant interchange of personnel between the districts and the secretariat, the provinces and the centre . The post of OSD is not necessarily indicative of any status, particularly if the incumbent belongs to the middle management level. The lower division clerk is recruited directly through a competitive examination by the Staff Services Commission since 1976. There are numerous functions of the PM. The burden of both these functions falls upon the cabinet secretariat. But this is a very important function. But the secretariat consists of a large number of persons. We thus find that the administration and good governance are inseparable concepts. Important files go upward in such a way that the deputy secretary may take decisions. Because of his experience, seniority and command over the entire system of civil service, many members of the bureaucracy depend upon his guidance and advice. It is primarily due to the fact that in a changing society the general administration also changes. The interpreters of our Constitution are of opinion that in practice this is the duty of the cabinet secretariat to make rules and interpret and implement them. (3) The Cabinet Secretariat is a big department consisting of all the ministries of the union government. It shall perform the functions assigned to it in the Charter, in other inter-American treaties and agreements, and by the General Assembly, and shall carry out the duties entrusted to it by the General Assembly, the Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, or the Councils. Our public administration performs one job very efficiently and that job is to harass the common people. The specific functions assigned to him are mentioned in the standing orders of 1960. For example, there are deputy secretary, undersecretary, assistant secretary. The number of OSD, is always more than needed in terms of the nature of work given to them. The cabinet secretariat is the confluence of all the ministries and departments of the central government and, naturally, all the important matters and policies as well as decisions are sent to the cabinet secretariat for scrutiny and final approval. Thus, the level of additional secretary has come to stay in the secretariat enabling him to concentrate on the more important policy matters. (2) For running an administration rules and procedures are essential and the secretariat performs this job. ISO is an independent, non-governmental international organization with a membership of 165 national standards bodies.. But before a final policy is taken a thorough investigation is required. Content Filtrations 6. Management closely monitors and controls all information released by the secretariat staff. About the nature and role of these posts, Richard Tottenham suggested that “there should be no distinction of function but only of pay between a joint and an additional secretary. The verbal exchange of opinion is generally avoided. The Constitution of India has adopted the Westminster model of parliamentary system and in this type of government cabinet consists of top politicians having wide experience in administration and good hold in party. The preparations of answers and, above all, the management are the collective job. During the Prime Ministership of Rajiv Gandhi the power, status as well as importance of PMO considerably enhanced. A deputy secretary in a department acts on behalf of the secretary. The central secretariat has developed a host of conventions which have gradually been formalised and amended as per rules and recommendation of committees appointed from time to time. The high commissioners and ambassadors of India to foreign countries are formally appointed by the President. In a small and well-developed country the administration happens to be small and, along with it, the size of the secretariat is also small. Immediately after freedom Nehru was the sole person who was practically responsible for all decisions, policies and functions. For example production department, sales department, engineering department, supply de­partment etc. Read this article to get complete idea about the administration of central government. It is the duty of the cabinet secretariat to scrutinise all the important aspects of the draft. V. Shankar, P. C. Alexander, R. K. Dhawan, G. Parthasarathi were very powerful civil servants and they were made the head of the PMO. The Financial and Accounting Regulations govern the CCNR’s spending. These officers stay in their special posts ‘indefinitely’, while the post is inherently of a temporary nature. For a better and efficient management of administration an artificial separateness has been done. The basic changes in the secretarial landscape have put the ‘tenure system’ under very heavy strain. (9) In a changing society no policy or principle can function permanently. The introduction of more than one level of authority in top management has disturbed the hierarchy. He should ordinarily be able to dispose of the majority of cases coming up to him at his own. The PMO provides all information and other details required by the PM. There is a very important function of the cabinet secretariat and in this connection we refer to the content of Art. An important stage of the central administrative structure is the post of officer on special duty (OSD). So the secretary is the most important officer of the department and he is closely or directly related with the minister For example, today’s finance minister may be the home minister next day. There is a Senior Selection Board and a Central Establishment Board which are consulted before filling the higher positions. The Government of India announced a Central Staffing Scheme (1957), according to which the senior positions from deputy secretary and onwards are filled through implementation in the following six categories in the central secretariat: (1) Officers of the Central Administrative Pool. Some critics are of the view that behind these appointments special favour or nepotism works. (4) In a democracy there are various sections or departments to execute policies and since the secretariat is almost the highest department it is its duty to give suggestions and advices to various departments in the discharge of their duties. The Wheeler Committee gave figures to prove that the complaint of the provinces that they did not reap the benefit of reversion of their officers is well founded. In a word, this body sits at the top of the entire administrative structure. One point demands special emphasis. In due course, this post got devalued with the interpolation of new cadres like those of joint or additional secretaries. But since the Cabinet Secretary is the head of this organisation the main burden falls upon him. Though the cabinet secretariat cannot reject summarily any decision of a minister it has power to review and scrutinise and, finally, to give suggestion. It is because, like PM, the ministers are political persons having no or very little experience in administration. He is vested with the maximum measure of independent functioning and responsibility in respect of the items of work falling under his wing. In free India the post of Cabinet Secretary was created for the purpose of betterment of administration. The officer coming from a province brought administrative experience and practical knowledge of subjects with which the Central government was concerned and, when his tenure was completed, he was able to return to administration with a deeper insight into those subjects and better understanding of the purposes which his administrative duties were intended to fulfil.”. Viewed from this perspective we can say that the success of the central administration is not satisfactory. The term “ministry” came into vague only after independence in 1947. If we look at the functioning of the cabinet secretariat, we shall find that actually all or majority of the policies or decisions are initiated by the cabinet secretariat. On serious questions of administration many bureaucrats depend on him in regard to solution of problem. But the cabinet secretariat is a ministry comprising more than one department. But in practice the entire administration is conducted and run by the cabinet secretariat. The inevitable consequence is that, for running the state administration, the PM is to depend upon those who have wide knowledge and vast experience in administration. The senior most secretary, coordinates the work of other secretaries. Normally, a division comprises two branches, each under an undersecretary. The bulk of the posts are filled by officers of the Indian Administrative Service, Class I central services and the selection grade of the Central Secretariat Service. Two branches ordinarily form a division which is normally headed by a deputy secretary. That is, bureaucrats can do the job of giving project advice to the PM. Each assistant is allotted a certain number of headings to deal with. The department of personnel and training, cabinet secretariat and the Prime Minister’s office do the screening work. Viewed from this angle it can be said that there was practically no existence of cabinet secretariat or central secretariat. After Patel’s death in 1950, Nehru was the only voice in the cabinet. The ordinary people are to run from pillar to post in search of justice or for the removal of grievances. They forget that rights and duties are correlative. Any failure will lead to chaos and the entire responsibility will fall upon the Cabinet Secretary. “Under Shastri, the influence of the cabinet declined and that of the Prime Minister’s secretariat increased, a trend which continued under Mrs. Gandhi. The section officer presides over the office. At present both the central and state governments are appointing OSDs. The designation OSD has distinctiveness in the hierarchy, which has an attraction. ; final disposal of routine cases; maintenance of order and discipline in the section. It is difficult to imagine of PM without PMO. At the top of the hierarchy comes the department which is headed by the secretary himself or in some cases by an additional/special secretary. In other words, the relation between the minister and his secretary is covered with secretness. Duties of a secretariat include trend tracking. But the proper allocation of resources is heavily flawed. In both cases their correct function is to relieve the secretary of a block of work and to deal direct with the member so far as that work is concerned. But the draft of law is prepared by the secretariat and after that it is sent to the minister for his opinion or approval. We observe that the bureaucrats are either inefficient or are not interested in good governance which indicates proper use of resources for social and economic development. Posts in the secretariat are limited and aspirants drawn from various all-India and central services are too many. Numerous changes are taking place—both for internal and external reasons —and their collective impact falls upon society’s administration. The term secretariat is derived from secretary. The report said “Ordinarily there should be no grade of assistant secretary but the posts should in due course be automatically replaced by posts of under secretaries.”. The justification for giving them more pay than a deputy secretary is that they are supposed to exercise a much higher degree of responsibility. At the central level there is the Prime Minister and to assist him there is a council of ministers. But the significant aspect is these members are elected by the people and are accountable to the electorate. The under and assistant secretaries constitute this lower level. Because, the administration is a formal matter. In this Act there was a post known as the Private Secretary to the Viceroy. It has always been the policy to fill the middle and higher management positions by deputation of officers from the state government as well as from the various central services. The person must be in the good book of the chief of the central government. The officers of the Indian Foreign Service hold almost all the secretariat posts in the ministry of external affairs. Hence we can say that the cabinet secretariat does not consist of any particular ministry. But at the head there is the secretary who will have to give answer to every question or problem. He is also referred as the branch officer. The office verifies facts and points out the laws and rules. Wheeler’s arguments for tenure system were: (1) The experience will train civil servants to assume responsibilities and cultivate a sound judgement. This was a unique post and the principles on which the post was created and its relations with the permanent secretary were kept undefined. But without materials the ministers cannot make policy. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. He assists the minister in the formulation of policies, and has the responsibility of keeping a watch over its execution. Technically, the Indian government does not possess a permanent civil service of its own, except the Central Secretariat Service. The basic idea was to select and earmark officials for higher positions, in the field of economic adminis­tration. Most of the cases which deal with policy matters in a ministry are submitted by the under secretary to the higher officers for consideration. The major and crucial aspects of administration of central government should be at his fingertip. This function of co-ordination is done by the cabinet secretariat. The division of a department or ministry has some practical value or reason. The system institutionalises the need for change at higher levels and the Maxwell Committee viewed its range from Governor-General’s council members to junior under secretaries. Policies and principles of administration are to be changed to suit the new circumstances and this crucial job is necessarily performed by the secretariat. The SSB is chaired by Cabinet Secretary and it recommends for posts of joint secretary and above. Mr Gopalaswami Ayyangar suggested, “A secretary should not be immersed in files and burdened with routine. The procedures prescribed in the Central Secretariat Manual of Office Procedure (CSMOP), attempt to balance the conflicting considerations of speed, quality, transparency and propriety. In spite of this there is a lot of importance of the PM. Content Guidelines 2. Tweet. In spite of this change in tendency the voice of the PM is the voice of the government. After consultation with the state governments it was decided in 1970 to constitute a Central Administrative Pool as a reserve for manning senior administrative posts of the rank of deputy secretary and above in the Central government. In the central secretariat there are also a number of posts or ranks. His duties as described in the manual are: to examine and put suitable notes and drafts on cases promptly and submit them to his section officer after properly referencing and paging them; to maintain properly the assistant’s diary, standing guard files and other registers; and to keep papers and files it tidy condition. A high degree of cooperation between the officer and his office is essential so that the officer may rely on his office to supply such materials as he may need to preserve continuity of administration. Whenever any problem regarding administration arises the cabinet secretariat solves it. The deputy secretary is an important officer. The WISA Secretariat became the central secretariat of the OECS and the ECCM, the Economic Affairs Secretariat. The second category of functions require the officials to examine the case and see that all matters requiring decisions are brought forward and to tabulate and summarise infor­mation, where necessary. The members of Indian administration perform one job quite honestly and efficiently and this is without doing duty properly how to get or ensure rights. Upper Division Clerks perform functions similar to those of assistants except that they are not ordinarily required to deal with cases which are of an important nature. (2) Guard file and card indices maintain detailed record of events. In coalition government no single party enjoys absolute majority. The OSD can be appointed with greater ease and bigger frequency than originally envisaged. From 1947 to 1964 (year of Nehru’s death) India’s cabinet form of government was actually the Prime Ministerial form of government. Under this system, the work of a ministry or department at the lowest level is organised into different functional desks each manned by an officer of appropriate rank, that is under secretary, section officer or assistant, who handles the case himself with the adequate stenographic/clerical assistance. Deputy secretary was not to report to the director but would refer the file direct to the joint secretary. They are called section officers also and are also responsible for handling of important and intricate cases. In hierarchy, the post status below the joint secretary is placed above the deputy secretary. •Economics and Domestic Affairs Secretariat •Strategy Unit •European and Global Issues Secretariat •National Security Secretariat •Joint Intelligence Organisation •Efficiency and Reform •Corporate Services Group •The Central Office of Information •The National School of Government Moreover, if some work is of a purely temporary character, it may be meaningfully concen­trated in one hand. This has resulted in the advent of persons with expertiseness. The British PM generally consulted a person about the administration. (b) Assistants and Upper Division Clerks: Assistants work under section officers. In mid 1997, as a result of restructuring of the organisation the Economic Affairs Secretariat was merged into and became a Division of the OECS Secretariat in St Lucia. Every minister or very important officer or top administrator has a secretary or, Sometimes, more than one secretary. Though the public administration is meant for the general public some information and matters are kept secret. The office consists of section officers, assistants, upper division clerks and lower division clerks, typists, stenographers and Class IV workers. Rather he is first unrivalled and dominating in the entire cabinet. The Secretary is the principal adviser to the minister on matters of policy and administration within his ministry/department. In the political machinery there are. The policy, making function of the minister means the involvement of the entire secretariat. India has adopted the British model of cabinet government which means that the P.M. is to act in accordance with the advice of the cabinet. The central secretariat is a collection of a variety of ministries and departments. Inherent in this arrangement is a duplication of real responsibility to the minister. I have already pointed out that this- function is performed by the cabinet secretariat. As in the case of additional secretaries, the emergence of the new level of joint secretaries between the secretary and his deputy secretaries has been criticised by all committees appointed by the government to recommend improvements in the administrative machinery. For a wrong or impractical or defective policy both the ministers and the top administrators are to be blamed. If necessary the secretariat initiates new measures, changes or amends the old policies. In exceptional cases, the desk can be constituted of more than two officers and even officers of higher grades can be posted to it. In 1931 a government spokesman, on an important issue, made the following observation,”I want to tell the House that when we place the officers on special duty we do soon two different criteria. Maheswari is right on the real origin of the cabinet secretariat. It sustains the entire super-structure which performs a ‘memory’ function important in the context of the tenure system. The service members work under restrictions and rules of Central Civil Services … His sources of power are not one but many—one is his personality and the other is his party. Most of the policy measures are initiated and submitted by a deputy secretary for the approval of the joint secretary or of higher officials. These departments are supported by the Legal Service and the Communications, Risk Management, Internal Audit and Compliance units. However, each ministry or department has a secretary He is the real manager of the ministry or department. Though the Post of Cabinet Secretary was created in accordance with the Government of India. The COD defines secretariat in this way a governmental adminis­trative office or department. A typical civil servant makes all kinds of efforts to prolong his stay in Delhi and he tries to become eligible for another deputation. There are expert bureaucrats in the cabinet secretariat and the PM or any minister can seek the advice or suggestions of the cabinet secretariat. It implies that certain growing areas of administration need specialised attention. The ministers cannot run the administration or formulate any policy without materials or data and these are to be supplied by the secretariat. But the fact is that the cabinet secretariat did not find any opportunity to discharge its function. The desk officer reports to deputy secretary/director and the desk attaches sends paper to undersecretary or directly to the deputy secretary/director. His decision are regarded as authentic government decisions in the courts of law. The Secretariat consists of five bureaus: the Air Navigation Bureau, the Air Transport Bureau, the Technical Co-operation Bureau, the Legal Affairs and External Relations Bureau, and the Bureau of Administration and Services. Paul R. Brass in his The Politics of India since Independence says: Following Shastri’s example, Mrs. Indira Gandhi used the Prime Minister secretariat as an independent source of advice, but she enlarged its role significantly. Mobility apart, it is enriching to generalists and even technical officers to look forward for pastures anew”. The ministers never execute policies made by them. The structure of public administration at the central level has expanded several times, but its account­ability to the public has not increased —rather decreased —and this has led to the rise of corruption at all levels. The administrative system of India must see that the results as well as benefits of administration reach the remotest corner and far-flung areas of India The ministers must remember this crucial aspect and, in that light, make policy. The Secretariat Procedure Committee also known as Llewellyan Smith Committee of 1919 pleaded for the extension of the tenure period from three to four years. Let us conclude this part of our analysis by saying that in our cabinet form of government the PM is the most important figure and though there are large number of ministers he is at the top of them. Copyright 10. We may note the following usages-Home ministry or Defence ministry or Finance ministry. A few decades ago in every office of central government there were large number of typists. Because of its innate flexibility, the post of OSD lends itself to use as a training post. According to Gorwala the joint secretaries ought to be in reality the secre­taries and joint to a more senior secretary for the convenience of administrative work. We have now to discuss the most important person of the cabinet secretariat which is the key to central administrative system. The FSB is a member-driven organisation and decisions are taken by consensus. But it is the PM who takes final decisions on all these appointments. Lord Curzon who had a special love for the man working in the districts introduced this practice called tenure system in 1905 with a belief that India may be governed from Simla to Calcutta but has to be administered from the plains. Reversion to departments/states is just to complete a formality. In this way he acts as a link. Trend Tracking. In a ministry there may be as many secretaries as the number of departments. He acts on behalf of his secretary and discharges the majority of functions of his own volition. (6) Cabinet Secretary is the head of the civil service department. Similarly Central Staffing Scheme which was adopted in 1957 continues in Central Secretariat Service and in Central Administrative Pool and Finance and Commerce Pools of the secretariat. First, when the government is convinced that the officer will prove economical. They are governed by Central Secretariat Service Rules of 1962, which has been issued under the powers of Article 309 of the Constitution of India. The top military or administrative officers had secretaries or advisers. The PM very often is to answer questions raised by the members of parliament and the answers to these questions are prepared by the PMO. The post is also known as joint secretary. For each desk, there is a team of two officers which can be constituted in any manner – one under secretary and one section officer; two section officers; and one section officer and one assistant. After three years of successful implementation, the partnership of the ADRIPASS project (Integrating multimodal connections in the Adriatic Ionian Region), funded under the INTERREG ADRION Programme and led by the Central European Initiative - Executive Secretariat, virtually gathered on 2 December for their final conference. Hence in Britain both the cabinet secretary and cabinet secretariat were the results of evolution or product of times. The Secretary, Additional Secretary and Special Secretary constitute the top management. He is the Chairman of the Planning Commission. Whatever it may, be there is no doubt about his efficiency and seniority. The public administration is a complete whole. The team of the General Secretariat is responsible for the day-to-day management and administration of Central IFA working under the oversight of IFA's Secretary General and the Executive Board. In fact, the concept of All India Services and their provincial or state basing implies that these officials should work in both the administrations at an inter changing basis. The rigorous discipline of the tenure system postulates appointment of the best, which is not a simple exercise in view of the clash of interests. In our parliamentary system the impor­tance of secretary or that of the senior most officers jumps up several time when the parliament is in session. They do not revert to the provincial secretariats. This status has also changed. To manage such a big department and to ensure its smooth functioning is really a herculean task and this task is to be performed properly and efficiently by the Cabinet Secretary. Privacy Policy 8. Here lies the importance of the cabinet secretariat. Since the days of Lal Bahadur Shastri the Prime Minister’s secretariat and PMO perform the task of giving suggestion and advice. What SR Maheshwari wants to say is that it was Morarji Desai who did away with the Prime Minister’s secretariat and made it PMO. But whether a policy is properly implemented or not is required to be ascertained and it is the duty of the secretariat to do this job. He is responsible to the deputy secretary for the smooth running of the branch and exercises control for speedy disposal of work and maintenance of discipline in the sections. He is the first line supervisor in the secretariat hierarchy and is expected to settle minor cases in his own discretion. If we go through the entire administrative structure we shall find that no specific duty is allotted to the additional secretary. The Party Central Committee’s Secretariat on January 5 called on the entire political system and people to tighten and follow COVID-19 prevention and control measures as the pandemic has still seen complicated developments in many countries around the world with the appearance of new and more contagious strains of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Both ministers and the temporary executives make policies senior-most bureaucrat is appointed to this very coveted most... Accommodate persons or to meet a special situation of its own, except the central secretariat.! 1950 and NR Pillai was the primary executive body of the international civil Aviation (... Prepared for these posts promoted as additional secretary is to coordinate legislative and! Pm was advised by the PM is the Prime minister ’ s office do the job of giving advice... Osd can be performed only by direction of the central government should be his. 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